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22gigantes.com - Candide: or, All for the Best, The Optimist or Optimism begins with a young man, Candide, who is living a sheltered life in an Edenic paradise and being indoctrinated with Leibnizian optimism (or simply "optimism") by his mentor, Professor Pangloss. The work describes the abrupt cessation of this lifestyle, followed by Candide's slow, painful disillusionment as he witnesses and experiences great hardships in the world. Voltaire concludes with Candide, if not rejecting optimism outright, advocating a deeply practical precept, "we must cultivate our garden", in lieu of the Leibnizian mantra of Pangloss, "all is for the best" in the "best of all possible worlds". Candide is characterised by its sarcastic tone as well as by its erratic, fantastical and fast-moving plot. A picaresque novel with a story similar to that of a more serious Bildungsroman, it parodies many adventure and romance clichés, the struggles of which are caricatured in a tone that is mordantly matter-of-fact. Still, the events discussed are often based on historical happenings, such as the Seven Years' War and the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. As philosophers of Voltaire's day contended with the problem of evil, so too does Candide in this short novel, albeit more directly and humorously. Voltaire ridicules religion, theologians, governments, armies, philosophies, and philosophers through allegory; most conspicuously, he assaults Leibniz and his optimism.As expected by Voltaire, Candide has enjoyed both great success and great scandal. Immediately after its secretive publication, the book was widely banned because it contained religious blasphemy, political sedition and intellectual hostility hidden under a thin veil of naïveté. However, with its sharp wit and insightful portrayal of the human condition, the novel has since inspired many later authors and artists to mimic and adapt it.
Best Review of Candide: Or, The Optimist: Bestsellers And Famous Books:
Most helpful customer reviews 16 of 16 people found the following review helpful. of the Open Road Media kindle edition of Candide By Phil (not) in Magnolia NOTE: Due to difficulties in posting this review, until it is completely updated the full text of the review, with links, can be found in the comments section directly below. I apologize for this but have been having an unusually difficult time in getting this review to post. This note will be removed once the review is finalized and posted in final form.This review will address the newly issued Kindle edition of Candide that has been released by Open Road Media as well as give an overview of editions of Candide available for the Kindle and available on Amazon.Many Kindle versions of well-known classic books are available. For books available in the public domain, as is the case for Candide, oftentimes these Kindle versions are available for free or for very low price.Some of these Kindle editions are of low quality and have various issues that make them less desirable for those who like to read classics on their Kindles. When I am looking for a classic book to purchase for my Kindle, it is usually a minor research project to determine which one I think will be the 'best' for my reading, and sometimes I end up purchasing more than one version in order to get one that is well presented and formatted for the Kindle.This is a relatively short book, normally about 100 pages in printed form, and not a difficult read. This Kindle edition is well produced, the publishers website claims that it has been professionally proofread, and I have detected no errors myself (such as often appear in Kindle books which have been scanned and published without careful check).This Open Road Media version of Candide appears to be the most common version offered on Kindle and uses the translation by Philip Little (see note below) which was originally published by Modern Library in 1918 and is public domain and readily available online (see for example Project Gutenberg link below). It includes the following:- short introduction written by the translator Philip Littell- complete text of Candide (presumably also translated by Philip Littell)- table of contents is included and functions properly, with book 'locations' indicated but not page numbersIt does not include footnotes, which the Gutenberg Library (online) version of Candide does include (see comments section below for link to the Gutenberg Library website). The two versions are otherwise identical as far as I can tell, and the Gutenberg Library version indicates where edits have been made in order to correct typos, and those corrections have all also been included in this Open Road Media version.(I note that this Kindle edition does not indicate which translation is used, nor does the Open Road media website provide that information, however it does show Philip Littell as the author of the introduction and several references I've found also indicate Littell is the translator. However, the NY Public Library article on Candide (see link in comments below) refers to this as an anonymous translation, saying "NYPL is using the most widely available e-text of the book, from the anonymous translation published by the Modern Library in 1918, available on Project Gutenberg").Candide has been well reviewed on Amazon and is available in many different editions, both for the Kindle and in print. The listings on Amazon with the greatest number of reviews are listed below. I would refer to these listings and the accompanying reviews for discussion of the book itself, which is generally regarded as a major classic and which has been included on many lists of 'best' or 'most influential classic novels:- Candide with 166 reviews at the present time (1918 Modern Library translation)- Candide: Or Optimism (Penguin Classics Deluxe Edition) (Listed on Amazon as ASIN B00B7NP1HQ - Candide: Or Optimism (Penguin Classics Deluxe Edition) with 72 reviews and this page on Amazon also provides links to the greatest number of formats available, including 8 different versions for the KindleCandide was written by the French philosopher Voltaire (François-Marie Arouet) and first published in 1789, in France. It has been translated into English numerous times. I am not going to attempt to judge which of the various translations might be preferable for one reason or another. I do list some of the translations currently available below, for those interested. Generally they can be sampled using Amazon's 'Look Inside" feature to get an idea of the quality of the translation, and in some cases the customer reviews here on Amazon will also address the quality of the translation. I do not know that there are huge differences in the various translations but I'll include in the notes below any comments I do run across that might indicate a preference for any of the translations (some works, War and Peace for example, have strong points of view from different scholars regarding which translation is more true to the original writing). Not all translations are available in Kindle editions.Other editions and more recent translations available include (this is not intended to be a complete listing of all translations currently available, only a selected few):- this 1947 translation by John Butt available in Penguin edition (I do not find this translation available for Kindle): ( Candide: Or Optimism (Penguin Classics) Listed on Amazon as ASIN 0140440046 - Candide) The Annenberg Learner website considers this to be the recommended version, saying "This is our recommended edition. This 1947 translation by John Everett Butt provides a clear and stylish English equivalent for the mordant original. This edition has an introduction by the translator, a noted scholar and literary editor, who was Regius Professor of Rhetoric and English Literature at Edinburgh University." See [...]- This 1961 translation by Daniel M. Frame (I do not find this translation available for Kindle): (Listed on Amazon as ASIN 0451531159 - Candide, Zadig and Selected Stories) which includes 15 additional stories by Voltaire.- a newer 2005 translation by Theo Cuffe also released by Penguin and available on Kindle: (Listed on Amazon as ASIN B00EK28X1C - Candide, or Optimism (Penguin Classics) or (Listed on Amazon as ASIN B00B7NP1HQ - Candide: Or Optimism (Penguin Classics Deluxe Edition). These Penguin editions for Kindle do include a number of supplementary notes (translators note, note on the text, note on names, map, appendices, chronology, further reading) but do not include any additional works by Voltaire in addition to Candide.- translation by Peter Constantine available in Everyman's Library edition (I do not find this translation available for Kindle): (Listed on Amazon as ASIN 067941746X - Candide and Other Stories (Everyman's Library Classics & Contemporary Classics), includes other stories by Voltaire (according to one of the Amazon reviews the included stories are: Micromegas, Zadig, What Pleases the Ladies, The Ingenu, The White Bull).- 1990 translation by Roger Pearson available in Oxford World Classics edition (the first link is an earlier edition published by Oxford and the second link is a Kindle edition that is a newer version of the same thing): (Listed on Amazon as ASIN 0192807269 - Candide and Other Stories (Oxford World's Classics), or the more recent printing (Listed on Amazon as ASIN B005JJ9RME - Candide and Other Stories (Oxford World's Classics) includes several other stories by Voltaire (Micromegas, Zadig, What Pleases the Ladies, The Ingenue, and The White Bull).- Norton Critical Edition, translated by Robert M. Adams and including extensive accompanying essays giving background and criticism, and first published in 1966 (I do not find this translation available for Kindle): (Listed on Amazon as ASIN 0393960587 - Candide (A Norton Critical Edition). This edition does not include other works by Voltaire but does, as mentioned, include a great deal of supplementary material on Candide.My opinion is that this is a fully satisfactory version of Candide for those readers interested in this book and wanting an inexpensive copy for their Kindle. It is being offered for free at the present time on Amazon but will probably be sold at a slightly higher price once this 'introductory' period has been completed. It is essentially equivalent to the several other 99 cent Kindle versions presently available for the Kindle, from Dover Publications, and a couple from unidentified publishers and simply showing "Amazon Digital Services". 8 of 8 people found the following review helpful. No holds barred satire By Ritesh Laud I happened to read Candide immediately after Swift's Gulliver's Travels, not knowing it was another political satire. However, a very different one. It may be difficult for a modern Western reader to relate to the school of thought that Voltaire criticizes, though it was apparently prevalent or at least commonly accepted in the mid-18th century. The philosophy satirized is basically one of optimistically leaving one's future in the hands of fate since the best possible outcome has already been pre-determined for each of us. In contrast, today most of us in the West are taught that misfortune can strike anyone but a better life is possible with a bit of help from others as well as a good work ethic and behavior.The short novel reads quickly, with the hero Candide and his companions falling into some new misadventure on practically every other page. Both the Old World and New are traveled with a special visit to Eldorado, the Lost City of Gold. The characters are quite shallow and undeveloped but this doesn't detract from Voltaire's quite clear message, which is that fate generally does not have a happy life in store for each of us and that we must work to improve each of our lots.Recommended and at less than 150 pages it doesn't take long to get through. I felt the 1947 John Butt translation to be excellent and very readable. 96 of 99 people found the following review helpful. Candide is one of the best books ever written. By P. G. McFinnigan This book is wonderful and stands the test of time better than most of the books published last year. So good that reading it is practically gluttony. Sarcasm at it's finest. The sexual undertones are presented in a hilarious manner. For example, the main character of the book is kicked out of the castle he lives at when the lord of the castle finds him in the act of kissing his lovely "innocent" daughter, who had just witnessed the resident philosopher and one of the girls working there in the midst of fooling around in the garden and was "flustered." Disregarding this book is denying yourself one hell of a good story, and it's not often you get told a personal life philosophy through such obvious crowd-pleasing comedy. Go on, read! See all 868 customer reviews...
Amazon.com Political satire doesn't age well, but occasionally a diatribe contains enough art and universal mirth to survive long after its timeliness has passed. Candide is such a book. Penned by that Renaissance man of the Enlightenment, Voltaire, Candide is steeped in the political and philosophical controversies of the 1750s. But for the general reader, the novel's driving principle is clear enough: the idea (endemic in Voltaire's day) that we live in the best of all possible worlds, and apparent folly, misery and strife are actually harbingers of a greater good we cannot perceive, is hogwash. Telling the tale of the good-natured but star-crossed Candide (think Mr. Magoo armed with deadly force), as he travels the world struggling to be reunited with his love, Lady Cunegonde, the novel smashes such ill-conceived optimism to splinters. Candide's tutor, Dr. Pangloss, is steadfast in his philosophical good cheer, in the face of more and more fantastic misfortune; Candide's other companions always supply good sense in the nick of time. Still, as he demolishes optimism, Voltaire pays tribute to human resilience, and in doing so gives the book a pleasant indomitability common to farce. Says one character, a princess turned one-buttocked hag by unkind Fate: "I have wanted to kill myself a hundred times, but somehow I am still in love with life. This ridiculous weakness is perhaps one of our most melancholy propensities; for is there anything more stupid than to be eager to go on carrying a burden which one would gladly throw away, to loathe one's very being and yet to hold it fast, to fondle the snake that devours us until it has eaten our hearts away?"--Michael Gerber “When we observe such things as the recrudescence of fundamentalism in the United States, the horrors of religious fanaticism in the Middle East, the appalling danger which the stubbornness of political intolerance presents to the whole world, we must surely conclude that we can still profit by the example of lucidity, the acumen, the intellectual honesty and the moral courage of Voltaire.”—A. J. Ayer Language Notes Text: English, French (translation)
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